The Celtic britons were the first to arrive, naming their new settlement "Caerluel". Unfortunately for the Britons, the spelling of Caerluel was not the only change to come. Eventually, the Romans arrived and took Caerluel as their own, renaming the city "Luguvalium". For the next three hundred years the city served as the northern-most outpost of the Roman Empire. When Romans withdrew to defend their own empire in the 5th century the city was left open to invasion, and invade they did. In those days, everyone had an interest in expanding their empire; the Danes, Vikings, Scots and Normans all controlled the city at in time. Finally in 1092, William Rufus claimed the city for England, but apparently not for Scotland. A permanent state of war existed for the next few hundred years and the ownership of the city fluctuated between the two nations.
During this continuous turmoil, a monument know as Market Cross was erected in 1682 at the town square. From the foot of the Market Cross in 1745, Bonnie Prince Charles of Scotland decided the throne was rightfully his and proclaimed his father King. His proclamation meant nothing to the Duke of Cumberland, whose army retook the city the following year and reclaimed it in the name of England once and for all. The Market Cross still stands as the main gathering place in modern Carlisle.
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