Mammoth Site

1800 US 18 Bypass
Hot Springs, SD 57747


Mission Statement

The mission is the preservation, research, and interpretation of the Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota and the promotion of understanding and appreciation of the Natural History of the Black Hills with an emphasis on the late Pleistocene.


To investigate and interpret this unique late Pleistocene (Ice Age) natural death trap for mammoths and related fauna and flora.

To protect the scientific integrity of the Site through the preservation and collection management of fossils and other geological materials.

To serve as a world-class center specializing in mammoth research.

To provide comprehensive educational programming based on the science of the Site and surrounding natural history.

To foster cooperative efforts in research and education worldwide.

Vision Statement

The vision of the Mammoth Site has always been to establish a significant institution contributing to scientific knowledge and sharing that knowledge with the public.  That knowledge is shared through programs, exhibits, publications and professional scientific interactions directed toward the introduction and engagement of all people to the world of the Pleistocene (Ice Age).  Our aim is to continue to be a world class science center that will remain viable and relevant for generations to come.

More than 26,000 years ago, large Columbian and woolly mammoths were trapped and died in a spring-fed pond near what is now the southwest edge of Hot Springs, South Dakota.

Examining the first mammoth teeth

Landowner, Phil Anderson (center of photo) along with contracted earthmover Porky Hansen (standing), examine the first mammoth teeth along with Dan Hansen.

For centuries the bones lay buried, until discovered by chance in 1974 while excavating for a housing development, earth moving equipment exposed South Dakota's greatest fossil treasure.

Fortunately, through the work of local citizens, the Mammoth Site was preserved. Today it is the world's largest Columbian mammoth exhibit, and a world-renown research center for Pleistocene studies.

From humble beginnings a world-class museum grew.

Now enclosed and protected by a climate controlled building, the sinkhole and the in-situ exhibit of mammoth bones attracts visitors year round. The bones are displayed as they were discovered, in the now dry pond sediments for an "in-situ" exhibit. Walkways allow visitors a close-up view of the fossils. To date, 59 mammoths have been identified, along with the remains of a Giant short-faced bear, camel, llama, prairie dog, wolf, fish, and numerous invertebrates.

Mammoth Tooth

Mammoth tooth.

The importance to science.

The Mammoth Site, a nonprofit corporation (501 C 3), provides the following to the worldwide scientific community: a comparative collection of mammoth remains, Ice Age vertebrates and invertebrates, geology, and 26,000 year old environmental data. This information is the basis for investigations, exhibits, and educational programs at the Mammoth Site. In fact, the Site's methods of research, interpretation, and exhibits are studied for implementation around the world.

The “Visiting Scientist” Program

Dr. Larry Agenbroad was appointed Mammoth Site Principal Investigator in 1974 and, with his guidance, the Mammoth Site has sponsored a "Visiting Scientist" program in which a researcher is invited to study at the site during the month of July.

Dr. Agenbroad with his 1978 digging crew.

Early days of digging proved the value of the discovery...there could be the remains of up to 100 mammoths along with fossils of other Ice Age animals. 

Pictured 1978: Dr. Larry Agenbroad (front row center with hat) with his digging crew. Visiting professionals have included: Dr. Adriana Torres (Mexico), Dr. Laura Luzi (Italy), world renowned mammoth researcher Dick Mol (Netherlands), Dr. Adrian Lister (England), Dr. Gennady Baryshnikov (Russia), Dr. Dan Fisher (USA), and Dr. Ralf-Deitrich Kahlke (Germany). As a slight departure natural history illustrator, Carl Dennis Buell (NY) was invited for a two week period during the 1998 Field Season. Through Buell's study of osteology, he was able to artfully "flesh-out" features of the Mammoth Site's giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus ) and the three of the site's Columbian mammoths.

Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, zoologist Dr. Alexei Tikhonov was the Visiting Scientist during the dig season July of 2001. While at the site, Dr. Alexei Tikhonov and Dr. Larry Agenbroad collaborated on a "soon-to-be-publication" comparing osteology of the woolly and Columbian mammoth. Alexei is a member of three professional bodies, two of which are involved exclusively with mammoths--- as Scientific Secretary of the Russian Academy of Science's Mammoth Committee, and as the Russian "Mammuthus" Program Coordinator. The "Mammuthus" program is affiliated with Discovery Channel's "Raising the Mammoth" and "Land of the Mammoth" productions.

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