AARP is hosting weekly live Coronavirus Information Tele-Town Hall Thursdays
June 4 Tele-Town Hall
Coronavirus: Personal Resilience in the New Normal
As many states and communities continue physical distancing measures and others begin relaxing them, this week’s live Q&A event will address the challenges of staying socially engaged and connected to loved ones while remaining safe. Find out how you can stay sharp, manage anxiety and cope with isolation under the shifting regulations.
Call toll free 1-855-274-9507 to submit a question and listen to the live event here on Thursday at 1 p.m. ET.
Older adults and people with chronic underlying health conditions — including diabetes, heart disease, severe obesity, kidney disease, liver disease, lung disease and asthma — are more likely than younger, healthier people to experience serious symptoms from the illness caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19). People with compromised immune systems, including cancer patients, and those living in nursing homes or long-term care facilities are also at increased risk for COVID-19 complications.
In addition to severe illness, risk of death from the coronavirus is higher in older adults. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 8 out of 10 deaths reported in the U.S. have been in adults age 65 and older. The CDC has issued specific guidance for older adults and other people at high risk for serious outcomes. Here’s what the agency recommends:
Older adults and people with underlying health conditions are encouraged to stay home as much as possible and to keep a distance of at least 6 feet from others, even as communities around the country begin to relax restrictions put in place to slow the spread of the coronavirus. This advice carries through the first two phases of reopening guidelines drafted by the White House coronavirus task force.
And while limiting contact with others is one way to slow the spread of the virus and protect high-risk populations from infection, public health experts also are advising everyday actions that can reduce risk of infection, such as frequent handwashing and disinfecting high-touch surfaces. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets and sinks.
Older Americans and adults who routinely take medications should make sure they have “adequate supplies” on hand, said Nancy Messonnier, an internist and director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at the CDC.
It’s also important to stock up on over-the-counter medications to treat fever, cough and other symptoms, as well as tissues and common medical supplies.
Major health insurers have pledged to relax prescription refill limits on “maintenance medications” in the wake of the coronavirus outbreak. Prescription refill limits are also being waived for many Medicare Advantage and Part D beneficiaries.
If you run into difficulty stocking up on your prescriptions at the pharmacy, consider refilling your medications with a mail-order service, the CDC says. You can also ask your physician to switch your prescription from a 30-day supply to a 90-day supply to make sure you have enough medication to get through a longer period of time.
And make sure you have enough food in the house in case you have to stay home for an extended period. If you need to run out for necessities, the CDC has guidance on how to do so safely. On the list:
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Limit exposure. That’s the best way to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This means staying home as much as you can and minimizing contact with others, especially crowds. Avoid all nonessential travel and consider contact-free pickup and delivery options as an alternative to going out in public for food and other necessities.
Health officials also advise taking everyday steps that can prevent the spread of respiratory viruses. Wash your hands often with soap and water (scrub for at least 20 seconds), and use alcohol-based hand sanitizer when soap is not an option. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth with unwashed hands, and cover your coughs and sneezes.
“This is the other side of not spreading the disease, which is not catching it,” Messonnier said.
It’s also a good idea to draft a plan in case you do become sick. Identify a designated sickroom in your home that can be used to separate sick household members from healthy ones. And identify aid organizations in your community that you can contact for help should you need it.
The government advises against all nonessential international travel, including cruise ship travel during the pandemic. As far as domestic travel is concerned, the CDC encourages travelers to study the current situation ahead of their trip to “learn if coronavirus is spreading in your local area or in any of the places you are going.”
For older adults and others at high risk for severe illness from a coronavirus infection, traveling can be dangerous, especially if you are in close contact with others. “People at higher risk for severe illness need to take extra precautions,” the CDC says. Staying home is still the best way to protect yourself and others from getting sick, the agency adds.
If you do decide to travel, the CDC outlines steps you can take to reduce your chances of getting sick:
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person to person by respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks, according to the CDC. Those droplets can land in the mouths or noses of nearby people or be inhaled into the lungs. The CDC says “the virus may be spread in other ways,” including by touching a contaminated surface or object and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes. However, this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads, the agency maintains.
Health officials are still working to better understand how easily the virus is spread from person to person. Research shows that COVID-19 can be spread by people who are not showing symptoms. A population-based study in Iceland, for example, found that 43 percent of participants who tested positive for the virus reported no symptoms at the time of the test. Similarly, 45 percent of positive cases in an Indiana-based population survey were asymptomatic when tested, and about 18 percent of people onboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship never developed symptoms of a coronavirus infection.
Patients with COVID-19 have reported symptoms similar to other respiratory illnesses, including
Chills, muscle pain, sore throat and new loss of taste or smell may also indicate a coronavirus infection. Other less common symptoms have been reported, including gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, the CDC says. Skin rashes or lesions may also be a sign of the virus.
The CDC is asking anyone who experiences symptoms to call their health care provider or local health department for advice before seeking care to avoid spreading germs to others. Those who are feeling sick and are unsure of their symptoms can also check the CDC’s interactive guide for advice on appropriate medical care.
However, if you develop emergency warning signs — pain or pressure in the chest, disorientation or confusion, a blue tint in your face or lips, or difficulty breathing or shortness of breath — get medical attention immediately, health officials warn. Many patients with severe complications from the virus develop pneumonia and may require assistance breathing with a ventilator.
Doctors who suspect COVID-19 can order a test. Legislation signed into law March 18 makes coronavirus tests available at no cost.
The CDC also has tips for what to do if you become infected with COVID-19.
Early indications show African Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans are disproportionately being affected by the virus and the illness it causes.
A mid-April analysis from the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) showed that in the majority of states reporting data that include race and ethnicity, black Americans account for a higher share of confirmed cases and deaths compared to their share of the total population. An earlier report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) studied a handful of states and found that among patients for whom information on race and ethnicity was available, black Americans were hospitalized at higher rates than whites for COVID-19. What’s more, in New York City, the U.S. community hardest hit by the virus, more Hispanics per capita are succumbing to the illness than any other ethnic group.
Infection rates have been especially high in the Navajo Nation, which has land in Arizona, New Mexico and Utah, with more than 2,700 cases and 88 deaths as of May 8. The KFF analysis shows that Native Americans make up more than a third of cases in New Mexico but only 9 percent of the state’s population. In Arizona, Native Americans account for 7 percent of cases and 21 percent of deaths, but 4 percent of the state’s population. Utah did not release racial data on its cases.
There is no formally approved treatment for COVID-19 at this time. However the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May 1 issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Gilead Sciences’ antiviral drug remdesivir as a treatment option for people who are hospitalized with COVID-19.
The news came shortly after the NIH announced preliminary results from an international clinical trial testing remdesivir as a potential treatment for COVID-19. Researchers found that patients with severe illness who received the drug recovered faster than those who received a placebo. “Results also suggested a survival benefit,” the NIH said in a news release. The mortality rate for the group that received remdesivir was lower than for the placebo group.
The EUA — which is not the same as official FDA approval — “allows for remdesivir to be distributed in the U.S. and administered intravenously by health care providers” to treat patients who have low blood oxygen levels or who need breathing support by way of a mechanical ventilator.
Phase 1 clinical trials to test the safety and effectiveness of a potential vaccine for the new coronavirus are underway.
Even still, some experts predict a vaccine is likely a year away, at minimum, from being available to the public. The White House has a more ambitious goal: It’s leading an effort to bring a coronavirus vaccine to the market by January 2021. Nearly 100 research teams around the world are working on vaccine development, according to the Milken Institute’s COVID-19 Treatment and Vaccine Tracker.
A vaccine will need to be tested in a series of clinical trials — each lasting months — to determine its safety and effectiveness in people. If the vaccine proves safe and effective in the trials and is rushed through regulatory processes, it will still need to be produced for the masses, which also takes time.
There is no evidence that the flu shot or the pneumococcal vaccination will provide any protection from the coronavirus, Messonnier said. Both, however, will increase your chances of staying healthy and staying out of the hospital during the pandemic.
Health officials stress that it’s important to take care of sick friends and neighbors in the community — and there’s a way to do so safely. If you are taking food to a neighbor, consider leaving it at the door. Since COVID-19 is most likely passed by respiratory droplets, this will eliminate the chance of the virus spreading.
If you are caring for someone who has COVID-19, keep a safe distance. Wash your hands often, wipe down high-touch surfaces and remind the person who is sick to wear a face mask. You should wear a face mask too. Offer to help with groceries and errands, if possible. And make sure the person who is sick drinks lots of fluids and rests.
Finally: Watch for warning signs of serious illness. Call the doctor if the person’s condition worsens, and seek immediate medical attention if they have difficulty breathing, pain in the chest, new confusion, or blueish lips or face.
Adults living in nursing homes and long-term care facilities are at high risk for severe sickness if infected with the coronavirus, which is why facilities across the country are banning visitation (with special consideration given to end-of-life cases).
If you have a loved one in a nursing home or long-term care facility, visit with them virtually: Stay in touch through videoconferencing, emails and phone calls. Send pictures or letters or drop off a care package. (Not all facilities may allow this, so check first.)
Also: Identify a point of contact on staff for when you have questions and concerns. Facilities are required by the federal government to alert residents, their families and the CDC within 12 hours if a case of COVID-19 is confirmed.
When will long-term care facilities ease up on their visitation policies? It could be a while. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) on May 18 said nursing homes should be “among the last to reopen” and announced recommendations to state and local governments for the reopening process. On the list: Facilities need to have routine testing and adequate supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE) and cleaning and disinfection materials. Nearby hospitals also need to have enough beds to take care of any residents who need to be transferred there.
The CDC is encouraging all Americans — even people who feel healthy — to wear cloth face masks or homemade face coverings in public when 6-feet social distancing is difficult to maintain in an effort to help slow the spread of the coronavirus. The guidance, announced April 3, is a reversal from previous CDC recommendations that face masks only need to be worn by people who are sick with COVID-19 or by those caring for someone who is sick.
The masks the CDC is recommending can be purchased online or made at home. Health officials stress N95 respirator masks and surgical masks should be reserved for frontline health care workers.
AARP has a tutorial on how to make a face mask at home.
Coronaviruses, named for their crownlike shape, are a large family of viruses that are common in many species of animals. Several coronaviruses can infect people, according to the CDC. These strains mostly cause cold-like symptoms but can sometimes progress to more complicated lower respiratory tract illnesses, such as pneumonia or bronchitis.
On rare occasion, animal coronaviruses can evolve and spread among humans, as seen with MERS and SARS. The virus at the center of the latest outbreak is being referred to as a novel (new) coronavirus, since it’s something that health officials have not seen before.
This story will be updated periodically with new developments in the global outbreak. Check back regularly.
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